the entire first portion (with dedicatory material) removed
The LIVES and DEATHS of MARIE Queen of SCOTLAND, And of Her Son and Successor JAMES The Sixt of that name, King of SCOTLAND, And of Great BRITAIN, FRANCE and IRELAND the First.
KINGS are Gods upon Earth; God himself hath said so; [Note: Of King Iames parents to his Birth. ] Intituling Them to this Dignity, with power over their People: But they shall die like Men; Humbling their Souls for a blessed End; Lest their Greatness here, should make them careless of their Glory hereafter; Death being the entrance into eternal life. And so much honour is done to Them, that the Old Testament affords four Books of the Kings; two of which are particular Chronicles of their Persons and Actions, with many other memorable passages of Kings, mentioned promiscuously both in the Old and New Testament; besides those Books not extant, of their wonderfull works, to which much is referred by Holy-writ. [page 2] And it hath been held sacred, with most Nations, not to leave their Soveraigns long buried in the Graves of Oblivion. And if so of most KINGS, why not of these so well deserving, Mary the Mother, and JAMES Her Son and Successor[...] They came into the World when all was on fire, not peace in any part. All Europe in a Militia. The East had much to do for Defence against the Turk; The West in Offence one with the other; The North at variance with their neighbours; The South had influence upon them all. A Massy body of War, in several Postures, and each Army of sundry Brigades; Onely Himself never had an Enemy. I desire to bring together much of the main into little, and in due place to observe, out of all, what particular Interest became this King; The measure of whose Glory may be taken by its Profundity, which onely in him held out long and even. Let us be mindfull of their Descent. She was sole Daughter and Heir to Iames Stuart, [Note: Their descent. ] the fift of that Name, and the 108. King of SCOTLAND; begotten upon Mary his Queen, of that Illustrious Family of the Dukes of Lorain; Maried to him at Saint Andrews, Iuly 1538. About the time, [Note: H. 8. turns Lutheran,] when Henry 8. of England became Lutheran, whom the Pope Excommunicates and interdicts His Dominions, and with more than malice moves the Emperour and French King to be His Enemies. To palliate such potency, He procures an Interview with them at Nice, a Maritime Town in the Confines of Provence; And being returned, desires Conference with the King of Scotland at New Castle: [Note: And makes war with Scotland, ] But in time of preparation, the English fall fowl with the Scotch Borderers. Both parties arm, with equal number, about 30000. Iames himself in person; The Duke of Norfolk for the English, meet upon the Confines. The young and daring King, with the advantage of his own ground, and neer home, puts the Old Duke to advise, and retreat. And the next year, heightned the Scotch with an Army of 10000, to affront the English Borders; who hastily raise considerable Forces, and ready for the onset, the Scotch Lords, envious against the choice of their General Oliver Saintclair, [Note: And defeats them. ] though a man not deserving Malice, an excellent Commander; yet they refuse to fight, basely suffering themselves to be Prisoners, not only to the power of the Sword, but also to the wanton insolencies of Boies and Women, who haltring them by hundreds, drove them home into England. Ill News hath wings, which flew to the King at Falkland; whose youthfull spirit disdaining to out-live the infamy of his People, with monstrous regret on his perfidious Army, He willingly forced his own neglect of the necessities of natural support, Sustenance and Sleep, untill the weakness of his limbs, not [page 3] able to bear the burthen of his body, [Note: K. of Scots dies, And his Daughter Mary born. ] He cast himself on his Bed; When tydings came of his Queen brought to bed of a Daughter and Heir (His two Sons Infants dying some years before) at which he sighed out these his last words. It will end as it began; the Crown came by a Woman, and by a Daugher it will return; King Henry will make it His, by Arms or Mariage: and turning aside from his Servants, sunk down into the deluge of Death, 13. December 1542. being 33. years of age, and the 32. of His Reign. His Daughter Christned Mary five daies after, sole Heir of His Kingdome and Misfortunes, which She inherited to Her death. His body was solemnly and sumptuously intombed in the Abby Church of Holy-Rood-house. [Note: His Burial, ] Nor rested he after death: For Henry the eighth, though his Uncle, continued the advantages of this Defeat, and some years after razed the Church and Tomb equal with the Earth. Whose Body was afterwards, by the pious duty of his Grandson, Iames the sixt, removed to another Vault, embalmed again, and enshrined in a costly Monument, with Ensigns and Arms, the Dignities of his Crown and Kingdome. This Kings Person was well made up, [Note: And Character. ] with advantage of an Excellent mind, of a middle stature, with abilities equal to any; The first that pursued his Enemies, and the last that left the Chase; discreetly liberal, sparing, only for spending upon necessary disbursments; well affected to Letters, wherein he adventured in some verses of Poesie. If we examine his Umbrages, as we make our prospect upon a Picture of lights and shadowes; Take him in the Circle of Himself, He was of worthy fame. What he was forced to do in justice upon Offenders, the Dowglasses by pursute, and others by Execution, must be wisely referred to the then consequences of State; which of late to him lay under the disease of two professions of Religion, Romish and Reformed, the latter increasing to the distemper of Him and his Successors. His Daughter now left Heir to the Crown at eight daies old, [Note: Q. Maries entrance into he[...] Crown, and Troubles, ] (Age or Sex not debarring Hereditary Right, to rule over their People) which occasioned Her whole Life and Reign, most sad and troublesome to so excellent a Lady. To shadow out unto us, that Eternity is not on Earth; That Kings and Princes, seeming the best substance of Elements, and if possible incorruptible, as being the fairest Seals of Natures impression, yet these yield to the triumph of Death; not calmly neither, but by death dis-seasoned, in several conditions of their life, as well in Youth, as after Age; and so it fell out upon this Queen. For, [Note: By Factions of Hamilton and Lenox. ] being thus young, Hamilton and Lenox, cheef Heads of two Factions, distracted all; the one depending on Henry the Eighth of England, whose only Son Prince Edward was afterwards [page 4] affianced to Queen Mary; And Lenox supported by the French King, Henry the Second, an utter Enemy to this Match. These began the fewds, which fell by Parties into a mischievous civil War. And in respect her Person was aymed at by each of them, to make advantage; No sooner was Edward come to the Crown of England, but that Queen Mother, wise and prudent, sent Her at Six years old to the French King, and to the Duke of Guise, for their Breeding. And with Her (to rid him for the present out of the way) went Iames Hamilton, [Note: Earl of Arran Her Guide. ] Earl of Arran, whom the French gained, and afterwards created Duke of Chaste'auleroy (He was the Grand-child-son of Iames the Second King of Scotland by His Daughter) Upon their return, he was Tutor and Governour of the Kingdome, and her Heir designed in her Minority. Of Him much is spoken hereafter: But as He was plain, and well meaning, vexed with other mens policies, so of himself he acted little; and yet, to his power, he defended this Queen, through all Her future Calamity; But dyed some years before She suffered, leaving Her then, not in despair of deliverance. The Documents of France, [Note: Her breeding in Fran. ] met with such an incomparable genuity, and excellent understanding in this Princess (a Person compleat also for beauty) that She became the most admired; which moved the French King, [Note: And there married the Dolphin. ] to marry Her to Francis the Dolphin, Anno 1558. Being both the undoubted Heirs to the Crown of England, after the death of Mary then Queen of England (presently following) and Elizabeth her Sister. And therefore these new maried couple, took upon them to quarter the Arms of England, [Note: And as heirs to England quarter the Arms. ] which in truth by Law they might not do: None may bear the Coat of a Family, not being both a certain Heir of the same. Nor was it in truth the right of others, who did the like, as Courtney Marquess of Exeter, and the Dutchess of Suffolk, Neece to Henry the Eighth, by His younger Sister; and yet were allowed, though of further Descent; and therein (tis true) the less jealousie, [Note: Which offended Qu. Elizabeth. ] but to Her that was so neer, the cheef cause of Queen Elizabeths perpetual hatred, and fear, that She might prove too hasty an Usurper of these Kingdomes, and it was the ground of all the miseries that accompanied Her to the untimely grave. For Queen Elizabeth now come to this Crown (well knowing Her own power and interest with those of the Reformed Religion here at home, and in Scotland) opposed it. Which was construed then, that She might as well question Maries Intere[...] of Succession. In this interim, [Note: The French King and Dolphin die ] the French King Henry, and Francis His Son, depart this life, and the Queen of Scots left unhappy in his los[...]. Being become a Queen Dowager in France, where Factions inincreased, [page 5] too hot for Her to abide there. Her Uncle Guise (Her Curator) managing the most part, [Note: The Queen returns to Scotland. ] in which he sacrificed himself. Queen Mary therefore, having a desire to return home, knew She had been too bold with Queen Elizabeth, to get much favour; yet she begged leave from Her of safe conduct into Scotland; which was refused, disputing former unkindnesses; whilest in a mist She got by the English Ships, that lay in Her way, and landed in Scotland, 1561. Where She found Her State might[...]ly distempered, under Protection of the Bastard Iames, and M[...]rraies Government. To recover which, She used Her Subjects with all curtesie, and changed not those of the Reformed Religion, which was mightily increased by Her absence, and brought in by tumult of the wild Presbytery. And first, [Note: Requests a Peace with England. ] She warily requested a certain form of Peace and amity with England; and to make it the more certain, She proposed by way of Counsel to Queen Elizabeth (if She should have no Issue) to be declared next Heir to Succession. This advice, with the former bold bearing of the Title and Arms, caused more than suspition, That otherwise She meant by violence to take the Crown, having claimed it, through too hasty ambition. And indeed it was a great means to dissever their friendships. [Note: Which o[...][...]ends Queen Elizabeth. ] For alwaies unto established Governments, Successors are soon suspected; The People most usually, upon dislike of present things, look up after the rising Sun, and forsake the setting. Nor is it customary with Successors designed, to keep their own hopes, and other mens lewd desires, within the compass of justice and truth; and thereby also to cut off the likelyhood of future security, by hanging before their own eies their winding sheet, and to solemnize their own funeral Feast alive, and see the same. Hereby it was evident Queen Mary prepared to stand upon Her Guard, well waying the watchfull eye of Queen Elizabeth upon all Her Actions. The Queen of Scots was young and handsome, [Note: Q. Maries designs to marry. ] and in respect of Succession, thought upon nothing more than to settle Her self again by Allyance and Marriage; which Queen Elizabeth meant to propose, to divert Her Choice in France, mostly aimed at: and therefore by pretence of great policy to both, She offered Husbands to Her of the English blood, [Note: And Qu. E. propos[...] Husbands. ] which the other had most reason to refuse, and to strengthen her self by the amity of the French. Preferring that as most certain from whence her Birth proceeded, rather than to trust too much to the English, or to the policy of Queen Elizabeth, who was likely to govern the design as She pleased, to Her own advantage. [page 6] And therefore She accepted several overtures of Mariage with others. And first with Arch-Duke Charles, Son to Ferdinand the Emperor; [Note: Emperours Son ] but Queen Elizabeth soon threatned Her out of that match, and in plain terms commended Robert Dudley a new fallen Widower (of his own making, for this design and other great conveniencies) to mary Her. [Note: And in England Earl of Leicester. ] But that was retorted with much scorn by Her Kindred in France the Guises, as unequal and unworthy, they being then in Treaty for Her with the Emperors Son, [Note: And in France. ] and others of France, the Prince of Conde, and the Duke of Ferrara; and so was Queen Elizabeths design narrowly examined by them, and suggested, that this proposed mariage was but to colour Her own resolves to mary Dudley Her self; which gave the more suspition, [Note: Dudley preferred. ] he being suddenly made Masterof Her Horse, created Baron Denbigh, and the next day E. of Leicester; and for the more credit, his Brother was made Baron Lisle, and Earl of Warwick. But Leicester by Proxie made Court to Queen Mary, [Note: Leicester a Suter to the Q. of Scots. ] and (in time) Commissioners were appointed, from either Kingdomes, to treat thereof at Barwick: Though indeed, he had some false hopes, from the common bruit, to mary Q. Eliz. and therefore privately authorized his confident Commissioner, the Earl of Bedford, to hinder the Treaty, and to further the Q. of Scots mariage with Henry Darly Son to the Earl of Lenox, [Note: Q. Mar[...] in love with Lord Darly. ] who were both of them called home by their Queen, after their twenty years banishment here in England; And no sooner She saw Darly, but presently designs Her self to him. From which Mariage proceeded Her disquiet, and future unhappiness. This Darly was highly descended; [Note: Darly's descent, ] his Father, Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lenox, born of the Royal stock of the Stuarts, was allwaies acknowledged next Heir to the Queen of Scots in Her infancy. And this his Son, a person of incomparable mixtures of mind and body, [Note: And Character. ] might well excuse the Queens choice, and her disjointed Councils, concerning her Husband. And when she found it came to light, she desired Q. Elizabeths consent; but Murray, most ambitious, and unwilling to leave his power and interest in the sway of Government, (together with Hamilton) sought, under hand, all indefatigable waies and means in England, to prevent it; though Queen Elizabeth had no need to be taught designs and devices, if possible, to divide this intended Match. Which, indeed, caused Queen Mary the sooner to hasten; and having knighted Darly, and created him Lord Armanoch, [Note: His Preferments, And mariage with the Queen. ] Earl Rosse, and Duke of Rothsay, at the five Moneths end, of hir beginning, She took him, her King and Husband, 1565. And now Murray began his Rants, applying all his Wit and Cunning (of either he had sufficient) to his own private discontent [page 7] and ambition; and under the goodly pretence of Religion, had raked together such a rabble of the mad-headed Ministery, countenanced also by the Duke Castle-herault, that the whole Kingdom feared the disquiet. The Queen of England, might well (as she did) take compassion hereat; [Note: Scotland in disquiet. ] two young couples, her kindred, and Successors, having much to do to qualifie the twenty years custome of a turbulent people, not to have a King, till now; and willing indeed, to have none at all. For Hamilton, and Murray; presuming of favour from England, take arms, but were so hotly persued by the King, that they fled into England, and were there covertly protected, but might have been more openly, by the same rule that some English fugitives had been received in Scotland, as Taxley, Standen, and Welch, besides Oneal out of Ireland. All this was disputed by Ambassie from England, of one Tanworth a Courtier, to whom the Queen of Scots did not vouchsafe her presence, her refusing to call her Husband King. Thus stood the State of the Affairs in Scotland, whilst the Queen conceived with Child, and, as if blessed in the peace of this Issue (what she could never enjoy in her life) she afterwards brought forth, [Note: K. Iames born, 1566. ] her only Son, Iames the sixth (a Peace-maker to all Our World) in Iune 1566. But because the Religion (as they call it) is much concerned in all the troubles of that Kingdom, [Note: Digression. The Scots Religion &t State affairs intermixed.] as a defensive faction, taken up at all times to mannage other Designs and Interests; Give me leave to tell you their Story (intermixing the affairs of State, and other concernments of their contemporaries.) Wherein you shall find their pretended sanction from a Rule of Conscience, to be an Instrumental of State; from a pretence of Knowledge, to be a very practice of Ambition. Nor will it (I hope) repent the Reader, the tedious Story: for though Truth appears in Ordine Doctrinae, yet never more fully, than when we search the Original Veins thereof, by the Increase, Depravations, and Decaies, in Ordine Temporum. And so we proceed to the History of their Church and State, and the Contemporary Actions, intervening with England and France, and other Neighbour Nations.
The Life and Death of MARY Queen of SCOTLAND. [Note: Anno 1542. ]
long portion of text removedMurray, with much cunning, before his late departure out of England, proposed some hopes to Norfolk of mariage with the Queen of Scots, and secretly induced a belief of her present restoring, and spread these Rumours to prejudice her, and to increase jealousies, with many other suspitious, which surrounded Queen Elizabeth, Of Rebellions at home, and Plots abroad by the Papists. And as many more Tales that Q. Elizabeth, and Murray, had compacted against the young King. To wipe off these, an Apology was printed in Queen Elizabeths defence. In truth, she was much perplexed with fears, out of Emulation of the other. Yet with some compassion for her Imprisonment; and in both these distempers, there wanted not Instruments to rub the wound. Mary often solicited Queen Elizabeth with humble, yet Princely, Letters, with such compassionate Eloquence, that though the Queen had a Wolf by the Ears, yet with tears, had oft resolution to return her Home, and dealt with Murray by Messengers herein, but he was settled in malice, and would not incline. Then was rumoured the Mariage of the Duke of Norfolk with Queen Mary, as advantagious to both Realms and security of the Kings person, who must be brought also into England, and so under Queen Elizabeths power, and she so to be secured of fears. And that for finishing so good a work, the Dukes Daughter should be contracted to the King. And these Designs, many the chiefest Earls in England had contrived. Murray himself at his being here, intimated no less to the Duke, for that, She having maried her self to a Boy, then to a rash young Man, and last to a Mad-brain, might now recover her honor to wed him, a Man of discretion. Nay more, secretly, by Melvin, offered to the Queen of Scots, his Service to effect it. And the 69 Secretary Throgmorton, with the chiefest Lords, Arundel, Northumberland, Westmerland, Sussex, Pembroke and Southampton, and Leicester also (his Rival) were all of the Plot, and he broke it very seriously to Norfolk.
[page 72] The King of Spain, [Note: Anno 1570. ] not with much affection to the Cause, but for his own interest, and malice to Queen Elizabeth, secretly sends money and ammunition to Huntley in the North. The Duke of Castle-herault and Arguile send Seaton to Duke D' Alva in Flanders for aid, and to restore the Captive Queen; He promised fair; but did nothing, having much to do for his Master against Holland. Nay the Pope fell to work with his Bulls, excommunicates Queen Elizabeth, and absolves her Subjects, and some fears of a Rebellion in Norfolk, to deliver the Duke, exceedingly beloved and pit[...]yed. And therefore upon his humble petition and penitency, abjuring the Mariage, was released the Tower, and restrained only to his own House, but with a Keeper, Sir Henry Nevel, whether in favour, or to beget in him more Guilt; for Henry the Eight's Statute of Treason to mary the Blood Royall without leave, was repealed by Queen Elizabeth, and his Misdemeanours were not yet come up to Felony. But she, in much trouble, and fear of Forein Forces, and Domestique Insurrections, dayly put in practice in Darby-shire, Sent Caecil and Mildmay with 16. Articles to Queen Mary at Chatsworth in Darby-shire, not unreasonable, unless those concerning the Scots interest with France, of antient League and Security; which therefore she wittily argued, as not in her power without their consent. For her Dowry was from thence; the Scots Guard of Gens D' arms in France of one hundred Horse, and 124. Archers; the interest of some Clergy in pension; and immunities from their Scots Merchants and Students in France; All which (except the English would recompence) she could not remove their Amity; and some Castles also required, in Scotland, which she could not render, and so these Overtures were quite declined. The Scots Incendiaries at home, fearing that Queen Elizabeths good Inclination, or other Forein assistance, should release their imprisoned Queen, and so revenge would follow; Morton, with others from Scotland, are sent to prevent it, and present a tedious insolent memorial, the gall of the pen came from Knox and his Kirkmen, with authorities of ipse dixit Calvin, too hateful for president to others, in justification of themselves, and against Royalty, which the Queen read and disdained as a Libel. Yet she ordered Commissioners to treat with Queen Maries Commissioners and them, concerning her Release, but they excused themselves by a frivolous restraint of their Authority therein. But certainly, They that came impowred to deprive, had powers to restore; And indeed what needed Authoritie from others at home, when wicked facts had made all equals. Facinus quos inquinat aequat; and so all return home. [page 73] Herein, nothing to the poor captivated Queens Release; her Friends in Scotland worsted in all their actions of Arms or Treaties; strong places surprized; and many executed for being but suspected of her Party; Arch-Bishop Hamilton (Brother to the Duke Castle-herault) hanged as privy to the late Kings Murther, without any Arraignment or Tryal; and she here deprived of all her Friends and Domestiques but ten persons. She then bethinks her self of the last remedy; sends secretly to the Duke of Norfolk, renues her affection, and conjures his Assistance; with other Letters to the Pope and King of Spain, by Higford the Dukes Secretary, a fiery Fellow (even such another Creature as might be a President afterwards unto Cuff Secretary to his unfortunate Master the Earl of Essex,) who, besides his Errand, insinuates to the Duke, fair hopes of Confederacy and assistance from all the Catholique Princes, and the Pope also. And with this Plot of impossibilities (not without suspition of Treachery to his Master, for before these letters were burnt, he secretly stole the Minutes of all their private missions, and lodged them purposely where they soon came to light) The poor Duke (easy enough to be cosened, but not into the villany of Treason) detested and disliked his Motions. And yet afterwards, but for meddling with money in behalf of that Queen, to be sent to her Friends, (which was misconstrued perhaps in the worst sence) for Support of Enemies against Queen Elizabeth, he fell into this mischief and Treason, which Higford confessed, and discovered all the former Matters to boot. The Duke not dreaming what was acknowledged, denyed all at his Examination, and so was again committed to the Tower, and presently after him, the Earls Arundel and Southampton, the Lords Lumley and Cobham, with others his Friends, but these scaped with life, and in hope of pardon, told all they knew, and more than truth. And thus was he betrayed, not knowing whom to trust, where he lodged till he lost his head, the next year after. Bishop Ross Queen Maries Lieger Ambassadour of long time ago, [Note: Bishop Ross Ambassadour examined. ] and so now here, A witty and well-experienced Man he was in his Craft, and up to the ears in all Designs and Plots for her Relief and Advantage, through his Letters intercepted, and all their confessions produced, was sent for and examined; the most guilty Crimes of them all, either the Contriver, or deeply Acce[...]ary; some he confessed; those which concerned others, he constantly concealed, and cunningly answered unto all. There being sufficient evidence to make him guilty, he stood upon his Privilege, which he wittily defended; and [page 74 [...] 75 (sic)] yet were qualified from any punishment.
portion of text removed
The difference grew high and dangerous, unless to the Regent, whose aim was to fish in troubled Waters, not caring for the future, gave fuel to the Zelots flame, which neither command nor Counsel could ever after extinguish. I may not omit to Memory the horrid Massacre throughout all France, upon the persons of the reformed Religion, called by the Adversaries, Hugonites, from one Hugo (as they would have them) the History is so horrid, and the more uncertain in particulars, because the Papists strain their pens to piece it with some Excuses. But the truth was written then by One Ernest Varamund of Freezland, in the time of Charls the ninth King of France, 1573. In Anno 1561. an Assembly of the Estates in the Kings house at Saint Germans in Lay neer Paris in France, in the time of Charls the ninth, concluded terms of Pacification in Religion, among other Articles, It should not be prejudicial to any Man to profess the Reformed Religion, in the Subur[...]s of Towns only. Francis Duke of Guise (a Stranger, of the House of Lorain) was not present, and within few daies after in Champanie slew men, women and children in Vassey 200. persons; Among those of the Religion was Lewis of Bourbon of the blood, Prince of Conde, Gaspar de Caligni, Admiral of France, and Francis Andelot his Brother, Captain of the Fantarie, and others, Noblemen and Gentlemen. Katherine de Medices (Pope Clements Brothers Daughter, and Mother of King Charls) born in Florence, a City of Italy, had the Government of the Realm in the Kings Minority; for though by the Law of France, neither Inheritance, nor Government, are admitted to Women; yet by negligence of Anthony King of Navar, She had the power. The Prince of Conde, in fear of the Guises, garrisoned some Towns, stood upon his Guard, and so began their Civil Wars there, and published his Reasons, For Defence of the Kings Edict for Religion. Several Battails, and losses on both sides, and the Duke slain, peace was made, and liberty of Religion in certain places, which continued for five years. The Queen, to strengthen her Party, cunningly brought in six thousand Switzers, and pretended them, for defence, quiet and peace to all; yet suddenly garrisoned such Towns as the Religion had willingly surrendred, saving onely Rochel, who stood upon their former Conditions two hundred years past, Not to be forced to any Garrisons. Upon some rumours and fears, the Prince of Conde, and the now Admiral [...]ly thither, the cause of the third Civil War. The young King, by perswasion of Charls Cardinal of Lorain, the late Duke of Guises Brother, published Edicts, That no man profess other than the Romish Religion. But both parties wearied out with this last Miserable Distraction, the King politiquely pretends to drown all Discontents by a Reconciliation, and to join both forces against their Common Enemy the Spaniard, who in truth had barbarously murthered the French Plantation in Florida in the West Indies, and Marquisdome of Finall. And to this Contract ingaged the Prince of Orange in the low Countreys, by means of his Brother Lodowick, now in the Admirals Camp at the very time when the Emperour had offered to reconcile Orange to the Spaniard. And by these pretences this third War was ended, with Toleration of Religion as before, with unanimous Congratulation by Embassyes from the three Electors of Germany (Princes reformed) and sworn to by the King sacredly to observe. Which so incouraged the Orange party, as to bring all their Sea prizes into Rochel, and this Contract drew in Eliz. Queen of England; and all these overtures committed by the King to the Admirals prosecution. Notwithstanding these publique Conditions therein, the Pope sent Cardinal Alexandrine from Rome, with Instructions to perswade the French King to enter societ[...] with the League of Trent, to make war upon the Heretiques; and had satisfactory answer from the King and Queen-Mother; and on the Contrary all possible tokens of favor to the Admiral and his Complices, in restoring their losses, with a sum of one [...]undred thousand pound Sterling, out of his Treasure, not leaving the least action undon to amuse the Admiral into firm assurance of the Kings faithful intentions. And to confirm belief, purposed to affiance his Sister Margaret to Prince Henry, Son to the Queen of Navar, who had defended the Cause of the Religion in the late Wars, and this to be celebrated according to the Reformed Religion. The League between Charls the King, and the Prince of Orange, and Articles concluded. The Mariage appointed in Paris, and the Queen of Navar (of the Religion) repaired thither for the Solemnity. The Admiral also sent for by the King to go before to Paris, promising himself to follow; and the Spire-Cross-Steeple, called Gastignes Cross erected in the rage of the Civil War, in Triumph and reproach of the Religion (a Monument of Civil Dissention) was by the Admirals request overthrown. Great Assistance of Men and Ammunition sent to the Army of the Prince of Orange into Germany; And order to the Treasurer, to deliver moneys to the Admirall for the Publick Service, without accompt. In this Interim, the Queen of Navar was impoisoned at Paris by a pair of perfumed Gloves, by one Renat, a cunning Apothecary, and so the Kingdome descended to Prince Henry her Son, who was to be affianced to the Kings Sister, and the Mariage solemnized with respect to eithers Religion. And five daies after the Admirall solicited the Council in behalf of the Religion, and returning home with divers Noblemen, he was shot by a Harquehuss out of a Window, through both his Arms, by one not certainly named, but the Abetters were Guisets. The King visits the Admiral in some danger of Death, from whom he receives advice and Counsel in his private affairs, and with great affection and thanks, the King commanded a Guard for security of the Admirals person, by Cossin Captain of the Kings Guard an utter Enemy to the Admirall, and all his Friends advised to draw into the Admirals quarters to be neer to him. Thus all things prepared for the purpose of a Massacre, the Queen Mother summons all the Confederates, with advice, to spare the King of Navars life, and the Prince of Conde, and the Execution to be the next night early, by Order of the Duke of Guise, who summoned the Diziners, and told them the Kings design to destroy all the Rebels of the late Wars, at the sound of the Tocksein or Bell, and the Mark of difference, a while Cross in their hats, and a handkercher about the arm. The Duke of Guise, with the Kings Guard, and the Bastard Son of King Henry, assisted by Cossins, beset the Admirals house, who nothing moved in respect of the Kings several sacred Oaths to peace, the league with the Queen of England, Articles of Treaty with Orange, Faith to the Princes of Germany, some Towns taken in the Low-Countries by the Kings Command, the Mariage of the Kings Sister, solemnized but six daies before, Ingagement of Forein States, shame and dishonor to the Law of Nations; all was by him argued as security. Cossin with others, enters the house, and slew all in his way; the Admiral comanded his Servants about him to fly, and shift for themselvs, being ready himself to dy for the Church. [...]he Villains enter his Chamber, Benuese a German, thrust the Admiral into the Body, and Attin a Picard shot him into the Heart, with a Pistol, and threw his body out of the Window, down into the Court, where the Duke de Guise, and the Bastard, and other staied to view it, and so marching out, cryed, that this was the Kings pleasure, for that the Conspirators had resolved to kill the King. The Admirals head was sent to Rome, his body dragged through the Streets, and after hanged up on the City Gallowes with a rope by the feet, and so all that day murthering and killing all of the Religion, Men, Women and Children. The King of Navar, and Prince of Conde, in the Louvre were sent for to the Kings presence (their Servants being all slain) and so preserved; all the Noblemen and Gentlemen their friends slain, and the next day a fresh murthering ranged through all the Cities, and all the Offices and Places of the dead presented to the Murtherers, and by this Example Post news commanded all the other Places of Reformation to be so butchered throughout France, [...]s in Orleance, Angiers, Viaron, Troys, and Auxerre, &tc. The King fearing the Dishonor of this base Treachery, and perjury, posted Letters to all his Governours of Provinces, and speedy Messengers to England, Germany and Switzerland, of this great Commotion in France, raised by the Duke of Guise, and his Complices, upon the Guard and person of the Admiral, and his Friends, with the Death of many, and hazard therein of the Kings person, his Mother and Brethren by the safety of his Castle the Louvre; this dissimulation he was forced unto for the present; and yet within two daies after, declared in open Parliament, that the Admirall and his Confederates had conspired his death, with his Mothers, Brethren, and King of Navar, which was prevented by the others death. And this was published in print to this day; and from thenceforth all publique meetings of the Religion were forbidden. Some Reluctancies there were of several persons that conclude this horrid fact, surpassing the memory of all former ages; Others compare it with the monstrous murthers of King Mithridates, who with one Messenger and one Letter, caused an hundred and fifty thousand Romans to be slain; some said it was like the murthers of Peter of Aragon upon eight thousand French in Sicily. The difference was, their cruelty was executed on Strangers, this on the Kings own Subjects and Countreymen. These Discourses put the King to consider how to blanch this monstrous act with some colour of Iustice. And therefore they framed a Body stuffed with bottles of Hay, for the Admiralls, dragged again about the Stre[...]ts, his Arms and Ensigns of Honour to be broken, his memory by a form of [...]riting condemned, his Castles and Houses razed, his children infamous, and his Trees and Woods to be hewn down from the height of six foot. One Cavaignes and Briquemaul, men of excellent merit (the last being seventy years of age) were imprisoned and tormented for to subscribe, That they were of counsel with the Admiral to kill the King and his kindred, which they indured with horrid reluctancy even of their Tormentors, with great constancy, and therefore they had a form of Iustice, and were executed with the Halter, and so was the man of Straw the Admiralls Image, hanged with them for a ridiculous example, first murthered, and then by a mute arraignment, sentenced and executed. Such as fled from slaughter, or were hidden in the woods, were by fair words in a Proclamation promised mercy, but returning home were sure of the slaughter. And so throughout the whole Realm of France, for thirty dayes together, were so many thousands massacred, that besides the unmaried, there remained above an hundred thousand wid[...]s and children, well born, begging their bread. When all was done, and wearied with slaughter, The Edicts came out, that the former Treaties of Pacification should cease. And a form of abjuration for such as were terrified by others sufferings to renounce th[...] Religion, and none to be suffered to profess other than the Romish faith. [page 83] Whilst these sparks of former feud lay raked up in embers by pacification at home in Scotland, Bishop Ross in England, and but imprisoned in the Tower (as you have heard) though a man full of plots and policies, [Note: Bishop Ross released out of the Tower] yet his privileges of Ambassador affording him protection for his life; It being too much suspicious to send him under hand to his grave, and legally they could not. He was therefore released, after 2 years imprisonment, and packt away over seas, into France; in whose time of imployment here, [Note: and banished. ] as a faithfull servant to his Queen, many Co-actors were put to death, others detected and imprisoned, yet even with his parting, he left not unattempting; and was for many years following, beyond seas, with all the Catholick Princes in Christendome, a most pestilent disturber of Queen Elizabeths quiet; for not long after, he delt with Henry 3. of France, to turn Morton out of his Regencie, and to steal the young King thither, whose faction in Scotland might weaken thereby; and as he grew in years (with the French Tutorage) his affections might decay towards the English; the ancient league with the French strengthned, and with England dissolved.
portion of text removed
This was the begining of Q. Eliz. design, [Note: Against the holy League of Papists. ] which she presumed would in time be considerable, with other reformed States confederate; though in earnest; the whole intention of the Papists, had reference to the Church of England, the absolute orthodox Conserver of the true ancient Apostolick faith, though by observation of succeeding times in some relations, it appears of late wonderfully indangered. But, besides that of Religion, and strengthening her affairs in policie with other Princes, upon that score, she had a further a[...]m, to confirm amity with the King whom she was assured forthwith, mightily to offend, and to endanger her safety and honour with all the Christian world. For now (with leave of the Reader) having been led somewhat too long in the Church affairs; [Note: Return to Qu[...]aries story. ] let us remind the poor Captive Queen Mary, upon whom all the former suspitions reflected, and so h[...]stened to her ruin; for Queen Elizabeth casting about to make things safer, than fast, resolved upon the way, most desperate, which if it took not well, was yet the onely way, by taking Mary out of the way, and so give end to Elizabeths jealousies; to secure her Person from Treasons; to joynt her power now divided; and to settle her people from imbroiles and divi[...]ons.---But soft and fair, the wily wits of Walsingham and Burleigh, must be busied about it. For now she is removed from her fifteen yeers custody, [Note: Remo[...] in[...]o custody [...]o Pawlet. ] under the good Earl of Shrewsbury, unto Sir Amias Pawlet, and Sir Drew Drury, on purpose to put her upon extremity of redress against their extream imprisoning. And so she endeavors, and deals with the Pope and Spain, by Englefeild, to hasten their designs, however; which designs indeed, is so peeced and patcht together, [page 114 (sic 112)] by those that writ of them, as if each mans fancy, in reference to the publick, must needs take effect of Rebellious interpretation. And what ere was whispered in that sence, was sure to be put upon the poor Queens account, by which she smarted; for in this Parliament of England, the former Association of the Lords was confirmed by both Houses, and strict Acts against Catholicks and abetters in Treason, [Note: [...]rdundel [...]. ] which occasioned Philip Howard Earl of Arundel, eldest son of the late Duke of Norfolk, (three yeers since restored in blood) to complain of his enemies, pursuing him to the death, as others had done to his Great Grandfather condemned, and never came to tryal; his Grandfather beheaded for trifles, and his father likewise for concernments of lesser moment. Himself thus afflicted, endeavoring to retire out of the Kingdom, but was taken and sent to the Tower, where he found Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland (as accessory to Thorgmortons design) who Pistolled himself some dayes after, [Note: Northumberland pistols himself. ] but Arundel was onely fined in Star-Chamber. The Catholicks desparate to do something, [Note: Babingtons Treason. ] were animated thereto by Ballard a Priest, who from hence goes into France, and there layes his designs with the Old Plotters, Pope, Guises, the Spaniard and Parma to invade England, and free Queen Mary; and returning home, confederates with Babington and six more principal gentlemen, to kill Queen Elizabeth. All which their plottings were daily discovered to Secretary Walsingham, by one Pooley their companion; [Note: Pooley. ] and so confident were they of success, that Babington had his own picture, and those about him, all to the life, with this verse circumscribed, Hi mihi sunt comites, quos ipsa pericula ducunt. But this verse too plain, they inserted in the place, Quorsum haec, alis properantibus? The Queen being shewed these faces knew [...]one but Barnwell. Babington to hasten this design, resolves to go over himself. And by Pooley's means insinuates with Walsingham, and ingages to discover Fugitives, if he might be trusted with the Queens License, which was promised to him, but delayed, whilst all was discovered to Walsingham (by one Gifford a Priest) whom he recommended unto Amias Pawlet to suffer his servants to be corrupted by him, [Note: Be[...]ayed by Gifford a Priest. ] and so to intrap the Queen his Prisoner; but though Pawlet refused to conspire with his servants, [Note: Gifford a false Priest. ] yet he permitted one that depended on the necessary service of his Family, a Baker, to be bribed; and at a hole in the wall, to give [page 113] out and take in letters, between the Queen and all the confederates, which were (as sure) to be opened and read by Walsingham, who got the Keys of the Ciphers, and had answe[...]s counterfeited, to involve whom he pleased to suspect, in the Plot. At last (the time being ripe for Execution) they were proclaimed Traytors, [Note: Traytors all execu[...]ed. ] and at several places seized, examined, and confessing to every particular, they were executed as Traytors, seven of them most cruelly; the other seven with more mercy. The Queen of Scots was so narrowly watched, that she knew nothing of the discovery; no, not when Mr. Gorge was sent to her, to expostulate these plots. She being then on horseback a hunting, was not suffered to return; but in shew of honour was led to several Gentlemens houses, in the mean time, that her servants and her Secretaries are severed from Communication, her Cabinet and Desks, and Copies of Letters, with sixty several Ciphers discovering all, were seized and sent to the Councel. Now is Gifford sent by Walsingham into France, [Note: Gifford sent [...]nto France, ] and given out as banished; who leaves a Paper indented with the French Ambassadour In charge, not to deliver any letters from the Queen of Scots, or from the fugitives, that came to his hands and to be sent into France, but to such onely, that brought the counterpain of the Indented Paper, [Note: and there impoisoned. ] which he secretly sent to Walsingham. And so dep[...]ted into France, where soon he died; for, having done the main work, ere he went over, was for his reward discovered to be a counter[...]eit (even by slight of hand and Walsinghams contrivement) and so had [...]auce to his knavish face, that pined him away by inches. In this condition was the poor imprisoned Queen at Fotherringhan Castle in Northampton-shire; [Note: Q[...]. of S[...]ots c[...]mes to her Tryal. ] when the Councel were as busie what to do with her. At last, they concluded to proceed upon the Act of 27. Eliz. made the last yeer, against Plotters or contrivers of the Queens death, as before said. To which purpose a Commission under the great seal issued out, impowring twenty four Noblemen and others therein, who came to the Castle the 11 of October, to try and censure her. Against which she excepted, As being her self a free Princess, and not liable to tryall for life; Her ignorance of the Laws of England, and without Council; Her papers and writings seized; and so utterly refuses to be tryed. Yet being over-born, and convinced with many strong arguments of Law and Reason, she submits. The manner of her Tryal was thus. [Note: The manner. ] A chair of Estate was set as for the Q. of England, under a canopy at the upper end of the Presence Chamber. B[...]neath, against it, was placed a Chair for the Queen of [page 114] Scots; close to the Walls on both sides of the Cloth of Estate, Seats were made for the Lords, Chancellour, Treasurer, the Earls of Oxford, Kent, Derby, Worcester, Rutland, Cumberland, Warwick, Pembroke, Lincoln, and Viscount Mountacute. On the other side, the Lords Abergavenny, Zouch, Morley, Stafford, Grey, Lumley, Sturton, Sands, Wentworth, Mordant, Saint John, Compton, Chenos. Next to these the Knights, Privy Counsellours, Sir James Croft, Sir Christopher Hatton, Sir Francis Walsingham, Sir Ralph Sadler, Sir Walter Mildmay, and Sir Amias Paulet. Forward before the Earls, sate the two Chief Iustices, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer; And on the other side the other two Iustices, Delt and Ford Doctors of the Civil Law. At a Table in the midst, Popham Attourney General, Egerton Solicitor, Gawdy Serjeant at Law, the Clerk of the Crown, and two Notaries. The Prisoner being set, [Note: L. Chancello[...]rs Speech. ] Bromley Lord Chancellour turning to her, said, The most illustrious Queen of England, being certified, to her great grief, that you plotted hers and the Kingdom of Englands ruine, and the overthrow of Religion established; Out of duty to God, her Self and People, and no malice or ill meaning, hath authorized these Commissioners to hear what can be laid to your charge, and your Answer, to defend your own innocency. She rising up said, [Note: Her Answer.] She came into England to implore aid, and was promised it, but ever since kept Prisoner. That she is not the Queens subject, but a free and absolut[...] [...]rincess, and cannot be compelled to appear before Delegates or any other Iudg, for any cause whatsoever, but before God alone the supreme Iudge of all; which otherwise were der[...]gatory to her own Princely Majesty, to her Son the King of Scots, her Successors, and all other absolute Princes: Nevertheless she did present her self to refute all Crimes that could be charged upon her. The Chancellour replied, [Note: Chancellou[...]s Reply. ] that her Protestation was vain; for whosoever offends the [...]aws of England, in England must be subject to the same, examined and judged; and therefore not to be admitted. Yet the Delegates commanded her Protestation and his Answer to be registred. The Patent, and late newest Statute made a Law was read and opened: to which she answered, that it was purposely made to entrap her. Gawdy averred, [Note: Gawdy. ] that she had transgressed every part and parcel of that Law: with a Narration of Babingtons Treason, to which she was accused, as conspiring, abetting, assenting to effect it. She denies all, [Note: Queen. ] never to have received Letters from him, nor written to him, she knew him not, and requires Proofs of her Hand by any Subscriptions or Letters, nay, she never heard tell of any such Treason; Ballard she knew not, onely, she understood, that the Catholicks were grievously used, and therefore she writ to the Queen for some pity [page 115] upon them. She confessed those Letters produced from many whom she knew not, that profered their endeavours for her enlargement, but she excited none to any wicked Design, and being a Prisoner she could not hinder their Attempts. Then was Babingtons Letters read, his Confessions and Correspondencies with her, wherein the whole Conspiracy was expressed. She answered, that Babington might write them, but prove any receipt of them; if Babington or any other affirm so much, I say plainly, They lie. A Packet of Letters detained a whole year came to my hand, but I know not who sent [...]t: But Babingtons confession accused her therein. She blamed Sir Trancis Walsingham for his cunning plottings to entrap her, with counterfeiting Letters and Cyphers which he lamely excused, and put all upon policy of State. This held out the Fore-noon. After Dinner, was produced Charls Pagets Letter, and Curls (one of her Servants) confession that she received it; touching conference with Ballard and Mendoza for invading England, and setting her free. She acknowledged that a Priest told her, [Note: Queen. ] that unless she interposed, her Se[...]nd Son would be excluded from inheritance to this Crown, for that the King of Spain clamed a Right, and would give place to none, except to her self. It was insisted upon the Letters of Nave and Curl. She answered, Curl was an honest man, [Note: Que[...]n. ] but no sufficient Witness, and Nave was sometime Secretary to the Cardinal of Lorain, and commended to her by the King of France, and might be drawn by hope, fear, and reward, to bear false witness, and had a hand over Curl; either of them might insert into Letters more than she dictated, oft times she not examining them; before she signed that all Princes may this way fall into mischief, if their Servants and Secretaries may falsly accuse them; I desire their presence face to face, to reply to my Exceptions. The Treasurer [Note: Treasurer. ] objected, that she purposed to send her Son into Spain, and to transfer her Right and Title to England upon that King. She answered, [Note: Queen. ] that she had no Kingdom to bestow; however, what was her own, she might dispose as she pleased, and not render accompt to any. It was urged her Assistance and Pension to Morgan, who sent Parry into England, to assassinate the Queen. She said, [Note: Queen. ] Morgan for her sake, had lost his Estate, and therefore she was obliged in honour to relieve him; nor was she bound to revenge an injury done to the Queen by a Friend that had deserved well of her; yet that she did always deterr him from any bloudy Enterprizes; [page 116] However Pensions were allowed out of England to Sir Patrick Grey and other Scots my adversaries, and to my Son also. The heads of her several Letters to Paget, Inglefield, and Mendoza were read; [Note: Queen. ] She said, they made nothing to the Queens destruction, but if any forein Prince would endeavour her enlargment, it ought not be a crime in them or her, having often intimated her self, to the Queen, that she would endeavour her own freedom. She complained of her Servants and Secretaries perjury and treachery, and very unfaithfull unto her; that being a distressed Prisoner, and grown in years, there could be no hope to perfect those things which were expected from her, and therefore she was advised to confirm the Succession of England to the King of Spain, or to some English Catholick Nobleman; And said, that a Book was tendered to her for that purpose, which because she not admitting incurred the displeasure of some eminent persons, for being no hope from England, she was to entertain forein help. She desired to be heard in a full Parliament, or before the Queen and her Council. And now rising out of her Chair in great Majesty and confidence, she exchanged some words with Burghley, Hatton, Walsingham and Warwick apart. And so the meeting again was prorogued till the 25. day of October next, at the [...]-chamber at Westminster, before all the Commissioners; where Nave and Curl constantly affirmed, viva voce, all those particulars which concerned them to aver, and which she had denied. So then Sentence was pronounced against her, and ratified under their hands and seals, in these words recorded. By their unanimous consent at the Day and Place abovesaid; [Note: Sentence against the Qu. of Scots] they do pronounce and declare this judicial Verdict, and say, That after the end of the said Parliament (specified in the Commission) viz. after the first of June in the seven and twentieth Year of the Queen, divers matters were compassed and imagined in England by Anthony Babington and others, with the privity of Mary Queen of Scots, pretending Title to the Crown of England, tending to the hurt, death, and destruction of the Royal Person of our said Sovereign Lady the Queen. And furthermore, that after the said Day and Year, and before the Date of our Commission, the said Mary hath compassed and imagined in this Kingdom of England divers matters tending to the hurt, death, and destruction of the Royal Person of our said Sovereign, against the form of the Statute specified in the said Commission. All the Commissioners declaring that this Sentence did no way derogate to Iames King of Scots in right or honour, but that he continued in the same right and honour, as if that Sentence had never been passed. This Sentence (you see) depended upon Nave and Curl, [Note: Opinions of her Sentence. ] and [page 117] not face to face, according to the first Statute 13. Elizabeth; divers opinions passed, whether credulous or incompetent. Nave's Apology to King Iames afterwards 1605. purges him with deep Protestations, neither Author nor Abetter, nor remiss in his duty by negligence, or otherwise; but opposed the heads of her Accusation to the death. But this appears not by Records; his guilt shewed somewhat that needed an apology. Not many days after a Parliament is called, [Note: A d[...]legate Parliam[...]nt require Execution. ] the which was begun by authority from the Queen, derived to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Treasurer, and the Earl of Derby, and the same it seems not without former Presidents. A kinde of modesty perhaps, that if a Virgin Queen must look upon her horrid act, it must be seen through her fingers, and Maries Sentence accompanied with the Proscriptions of the Lord Paget, Inglefield, Throgmorton, Babington, Salisbury, Iones, Tichburn, Tilves, and others, confirmed; and their Goods and Estates confiscate. And the House of Peers by the Chancellor petitioned the Queen, that the Sentence might be promulgated, and besought her Majesty for safety of her Person and Kingdoms to execute justice on the Queen of Scots. The Queen was not to be [...]aught her Answer. [Note: Q. Elizabeth[...] cunning reply. ] She acknowledged Gods protection, and their love and circumspection, for preservation of Her and her People, against the many and mighty Plots of Hers and their Enemies. How sorry she was, that the Scots Queen, notwithstanding her forewarnings, should be thus entangled and guilty; whom (she protests) as a Princess, as her Kinswoman and Sister, she had reluctancy to spare, and to forgive, were not the security of her People involved; for, their Peace she values before her own life. Concludes, her thanks for their care and advice. But in a cause of so great consequence, she will not be rash, but consider. Twelve days after, she desires the Parliament to consult some other way of safety, and to spare the Queen of Scots; but they answer with no other satisfaction. To which the Queen in an excellent method requests them to be answered, without an Answer. For if I should say, (said she) I will not do what you desire, I shall then say what I do not think; and if I shall say, I will do it, I may precipitate my self to danger, whom, I know, you wish to be conserved. Then was Queen Maries Sentence proclamed throughout London, [Note: Sentence proclamed. ] and all the Kingdom, which she apprehends chearfully and resolute, and writes to the Queen, for her Body to be allowed Christian [...]urial in France, where her Mothers rested, since violence was offered to the Ashes of her forefathers by the Puritans in Scotland; nor could she hope for burial with the Kings of England; that she might take her Death not in secret, but where her Servants and Friends could give good testimony thereof. [page 118] K. Iames her Son in sad perplexity for his Mother, sends William Keith of his Bed-chamber with Letters to Q. Elizabeth; though it seemed strange to him, that the Nobility and Counsellours of England should take upon them to sentence a Queen of Scotland, [Note: King Jame[...] perplexed [...]ends Keith to Q[...]. Eliz] and one descended of the Royal Bloud of England; yet he would think it monstrous justice for her Virgin Majesty to stain her hands with the Bloud and Death of his dear Mother, a Lady of in comparable excellency in the worlds opinion, and of the same Royal condition and Sex with her Self: So, if it should be resolved, desires her to consider, how his Honour stood engaged that was her Son and a King, to suffer his Mother an absolute Princess to be put to an infamous Death. Keith, [Note: With several directions. ] after some time of delay, urges for an Answer, but finding no hope, he receives other Letters, commanding him to shew the Queen how unjust the Proceedings had been against his Mother, the Laws of God and Nations, for an absolute Prince to be sentenced by Subjects, and she the first Example of profaning Sovereign Diadems, Himself concern'd in Nature and Honour to revenge such indignity; and wills him to labour the delay of her Execution, till he could send Ambassadours of his own into England; for by Letters from Archibald Dowglas his Lieger in England, he found him evil disposed to the business, and therefore resolved to send one more honorable, and of greater trust, in his place. But Keith doing his duty, [Note: The Queens Answer. ] shewed the Queen his Masters direction, enforcing her into some passion, till Leicester and others calmed her; and then she told him, She would give no Answer in anger, but consider till morning, when she told him, that no haste should be used, if any other should come from the King in reasonable time, [...]roceedings should be staid, and be glad to receive overtures to save the Queens life and assure her own. The King certified of her passion, [Note: O[...]her L[...]tters more c[...]lm, ] posts other Letters more calm, since his other were construed as threats to her Estates; and therefore he courts her into kindness, protesting that the Rumours spread amongst his Subjects moved them into disquiets and mutiny at the forms of Proceedings again their Queen. That for his part, he could well distinguish any pressure, by the peril of her own life, and so not blaming her directly, prays her to put a kindness upon Him, Her real Friend; desires time till his Overtures be heard, hastily coming by the Master of Gray and Sir Robert Melvil, [Note: and Ambass[...]do[...]s. ] who were to set out on Saturday after, and came to London in eight days. Queen Elizabeth was better satisfied with these, being frightned before into fear of breach of the late League, and War with her Neighbours, and so gave them speedy Audience. She told them, how sorry she was, no means could be found to save their Kings Mother, and secure her own life. [page 119] They answer, Their Sovereign to save her life will interpose his credit, his Nobility as [...]ledges, that no Plot or practice should be contrived by her against your Majesty; or otherwise to set her a[...] liberty, [Note: Ambassado[...]rs reason with the Queen. ] and send her into Scotland, and so the better to secure the Queen. Asking the reason, What should move any man to attempt against her Majesty for Queen Maries sake? Because (said she) they think Her to succeed me, and she a Papist. Then (say they) these means being taken away, the Danger apparently ceases, for if her Right in Succession to England shall be made over in our Sovereigns Person, Papists will have no more hope, and this we are sure his Mother will resign to him. But (replied the Queen) she hath no Right, being declared incapable of Succession. If so, that she hath no Right (said they) the Papists pretences cease, and so no fear of them to enterprize for her. But (said she) the Papists allow not our Declaration. Then let it sink (said they) in our Sovereign, by her Resignation. Leicester being by, objected, that She being a Prisoner could not [...]. They answered, It being made to her Son, with advice of all her Friends in Europe, in case Queen Elizabeth should miscarry, none would partake with the Mother against her Son; all the Princes her Friends standing engaged for her Resignation, that it should be valid and essential for her Son. The Queen mis-understanding, was told the Ambassadours meaning, that the King should be in his Mother place. Is it so, says she? Gods Death, that were to cut mine own throat. He shall never come to that place, and be party with me. She was told, that coming in his Mothers place through her Death, he would be more party. Well, (says the Queen) tell your King what I have done for him, to keep the Crown on his Head since he was born; and for my part I shall keep the League betwixt us, which if he break, shall be a double fault: and in passion got away. Melvil made after, requesting respite of execution for eight days. Not an hour, said she. The King by this Conference expects extremity, [Note: The King write[...] to Gray. ] and therefore writes to Gray, Think not to reserve your self any longer, nothing doing good if her life be lost, adie[...] dealing with that State. As you affect my favour, spare no pains, nor plainness. Reade what I writ to Keith, and accordingly conform; and in this your industry, let me reap the fruit of your great Credit there, and Duty here, either now or never. Farewell. [page 120] Leicester took some pains in a tedious Letter to satisfie the Kings importunity, by telling him the common jealousie of all Princes for their own security, especially by such persons, as being within a Kingdom, [Note: [...]nd Leicester to the King. ] and claiming Title to that Crown, should conspi[...]e with Traitors to kill the Queen; comforting the King (as well as he could) how more dangerous Queen Elizabeths Death would be, than his Mothers liberty would advantage; concluding with grave advice, not to quarrel the breach of amity, and their last League of firm friendship. And to boot, [Note: So does Walsingham to the Lord Thirlstan. ] Walsingham writes to the Secretary of Scotland, the Lord Thirlstan, (with whom he kept private intelligence) as a wonder, the Kings earnest desire to save his Mother, seeing all the Papists in Europe affecting the change of Religion in both Realms, built their hopes altogether upon Her, who in passion to Papistry, had transferr'd her Right to both Crowns, unto the King of Spain in case the King her Son should persist in his Profession. And true it was, [Note: False Tale[...]. ] that such tricks were rumored, to divert the King from constancy in Religion; but never so done by her; if you will credit her Declaration at her Death: though I know (for I have seen it) a Popish Abbot in the life of Cardinal Laurence, at that time Protector of the Scots Nation, affirmeth, the said Translation of these Realms to be in his hands, and delivered to him by Court Olivarez the Spanish Ambassadour at Rome; but such forged Tales and Titles might have served the turn, if the Enterprize of Eighty Eight had taken effect against England. Thus the King leaving no means possible unattempted for a prudent and pious King, [Note: Scotland in disorder. ] but to to none effect; the State of Scotland then in a miserable distraction, made so, partly in policy from England, and the most powerfull Faction solliciting Queen Elizabeth for their Queens Execution; insomuch that it was objected, (as Pilate said) shall I kill your Queen? And therefore now the King commanded the Ministers and Kirk in Scotland to commend her cause to God in their publick Prayers, [Note: The Ministers refuse to pray for their Qu. ] which by no means their charity could afford, but absolutely refused; then he appoints a solemn Day of Fasting and Prayer, with Supplications to God for Her, commanding the Bishop of Saint Andrews to pray and preach; against whom the Ministers opposed, and in presence of the King put up in the Pulpit a young Fellow Iohn Cooper, [Note: Cooper a saucy Minister. ] not entered into the Function, to whom the King cried out, Master Iohn, that place was designed for another, yet since you are there, Do your Duty, and obey the Charge, to pray for my Mother. He replied, To do no otherwise than as the Spirit should direct him. [page 121] Whereupon, the Captain of the Kings Guard pulled him down, and the Bishop performed the Office, most grave and learned. For this insolency, Cooper was called to accompt, accompanied with Balcanquall and Watson, [Note: Is committed ] who were discharged their Ministery, and Cooper committed prisoner to Blackness. Then he concludes his last Messenger with letters, [Note: More letters from the K. ] Advising the Queen to conserve her fame and renown by her clemency, as yet unspotted from any stain of cruelty, not to be now defied and polluted with the blood of his Mother, the wound reflecting to his smart, which he should never leave unconsidered, to the tyranny of them that thirsted his destruction long since, as they do his Mothers now. Beseeches the Queens mercy and compassion to them both. In a word, [Note: A Mandate for execution. ] It was a business that till that time had no President, and Queen Elizabeth to say truth, as much perplexed what to conclude, brought her minde the more into confusion. At length, she signed a Warrant for a Mandate, fitted for the great Seal, [Note: Davison. ] and her Execution; and trusted it with Davison one of her Secretaries, to be in readiness in case of danger. But he too hastily had it made up under the Seal, which (some say) she would afterwards have recalled, but was prevented by the earnest prosecution of Beale Clerk of the Councel, Queen Maries enemie. [Note: Be[...]le. ] Him the Councel sends to the Earls of Shrewsbury, Kent, Derby and Cumberland, for her Execution, unknowing to Queen Elizabeth; for (it is said) at that instant, She told Davison that she was resolved of another way than by death. Indeed she was in distraction what to do, but whilst she doubted, the Councel did it for her. And so had her head taken off by the Axe at Fothringham Castle in Northampton-shire. But, [Note: The manner of her Execution. ] because her high birth and Exellencies deserve particular Memorial, I may not forget her behaviour in the last Act of Life and Death. The Earls comming thither, Pawlet and Drewry being there before, were added Commissioners to see her Execution. And gave her warning on Monday the sixth of February 1586. to prepare agai[...]st Wednesday next, the eighth day following. At which, she smiled, it being very sudain, short, and unexpected: But said, that her death was welcome, seeing her Majesty (meaning Queen Elizabeth) was so resolved; And that, that soul was unworthy of Glory, and the joyes of Heaven, whose body can not indure one blow from the Hangman. A good while, she was silent, then weeping bitterly, retyred into her Chamber, where she spent her time in devotion, and setling her Will. The eighth day brought her forth, [Note: Her featur[...]. ] to a sad execution. She was of Stature tall and Corpulent, thick shouldered, fat-fac'd, and broad; [page 122] double chinn'd, hazell eyes; Her (borrowed) hair, somewhat appearing, was Aburnd; and her attire thus, On her head, a dress of Laun, edged with Bone-lace; a chain of Pomander, [Note: Her apparelled. ] and an Agnus Dei about her neck, a pair of Beads at her Girdle, with a golden Cross at the end of them; a Veil of Laun fastned to her Call, bowed out with Wyar, and edged with Bone-lace. Her Gown of Black Sattin, printed, with a train and long sleeves to the ground, set with Acorn-buttons of Gett, trimed with pearl; her short sleeves Black Sattin cut, which opened upon purple Velvet sleeves under them. Her Kirtle whole, of figured Black Sattin, her Petticote and upper bodies of Crimson Sattin unlaced in the back; and the skirts of Crimson Velvet; her shoos Spanish leather, the inside outward; a pair of green Silk Garters, watchet Silk Stockings, clock't and edged on the top with Silver; and under them, a pair of white Jersey-hose. Thus set out (and not hastened) she willingly leaves her Chamber, [Note: Comes forth of her chamber. ] and paces towards the Scaffold, gently supported with two Gentlemen, Pawlets servants; Thomas Andrews high Sheriff of North going before. The Commissioners [...]tended her coming into the Anti-Chamber, [Note: Commissioners receive her, who ] with divers Knights and Gentlemen of that Country. And amongst them, [Note: speaks with Melvin her ma[...]. ] her servant Melvin, designed by her to go to Scotland; Ah Madam (said he) what unhappy wretch am I, the Messenger of my gracious Queen and Mistress, and of her death. The Queen not till then weeping, My good servant (said she) mourn no more, thou shalt see Mary Stewarts troubles ended in an instant; The world is all but vain; Say thus much from me, That I dye true to My Religion; faithful to the Interest of Scotland and France. God forgive them that thus long have sought, nay thirsted for my blood, as the Hart does for Water-brooks. O God, Thou the Author of Truth, the searcher of the secret Chamber of my heart, knowst that I was ever willing to the Union of Scotland and England. But well, Gods will be done. Commend Me to my Son; Tell him, that I have done nothing prejudicial to the State and Kingdome of Scotland, nor to mine own Honor. And so resolving her self into Tears, bids Melvin farewell, and kissing his cheek, said, Once again, Good and faithful servant farewell, pray for thy Queen and Mistress. And turning to the Commissioners, [Note: And to the Commissioners. ] she made some requests to them, That certain monies in Pawlets hands, might be paid to one Curl her servant, which was promised. Next, That her servants might enjoy what she had given them by Will; and to have conveyance into their several Countries, and this my good Lord of Shrewsbury, I conjure upon you. [page 123] Then, That her poor servants might be witnesses to the world, of her patient suffering; and that she died a constant Romane Catholick. To this she was refused, [Note: Who denie he[...] some requests. ] and Kent humbly told her, It might interrupt her quiet in their passions and behaviour, as is usual (said he) in dipping their linnin and skarfs in blood. My Lord, said she, smiling, I will give my word (though but in death) they shall not deserve blame. Ah, las! poor souls! they desire to bid me adiew. I hope your Mistress being a Maiden Queen will vouchsefe Me the modesty of Woman-hood, to have of my own about Me at death. You have not such strict Commission, but may afford Me more, were I less then the Queen of Scotland. But, [Note: At which she weep[...], ] being denied, She burst into tears and scorn, I am, said she, Cosin to your Queen, descended from that Royal King Henry the Seaventh; a married Queen of France; and anointed Queen of Scotland. This is not well. Upon which importunity they consulted, [Note: And they yield. ] and appointed to her Melvin and an Apothecary, her Chirurgion a Burgonian, and one man more; and two women of her Chamber. And now, [Note: and she come[...] to the Scaffold ] she passed on into the Hall, with undaunted courage, stept up upon the Scaffold, raised two foot high, and twelve broad, railed about, a low stool, a Cushion and the Block, all covered with black. Being set, [Note: Sits down. ] the Lords and Shrieff on her right hand, Pawlet and Drewry on her left; the two Executioners (common Hangmen, the one of London, the other of that Country) stood before her; the Knights and Gentlemen, placed round about without the Rails. After silence made, [Note: Beale[...] speech. ] Beale Clerk of the Privy Councel, having read the Commission for her execution, the people shouted, and cryed, God save our Queen. During which, the Queen with very careless regard, seemed as not there concerned. Then Doctor Fletcher Dean of Peterborough standing before her, [Note: Dr. Fle[...]cher Dean of Peterboroughs exhortation. ] without the Rails, bowing his body with due reverance, gave her this exhortation. Madam (said he) The Queens most Excellent Majesty (notwithstanding this preparation for execution of Iustice, justly to be done upon you, for your many trespasses against Her Sacred Person, State and Government) having tender care over your soul, presently to depart, does by me, offer to your consideration, that by the true faith in Christ our Saviour, you may live for ever. First to consider, Your estate past and transitory. Your condition present and to come, And the means of bliss, Or Bane everlasting. [page 124] Herein, having read her a tedious Lecture of the bodies frailty, commends to her consideration the Glory of Immortality, with comparisons of Mercy or Misery for ever: and so concluding (with the best Counsel he could) to deny her Romish Religion. But she, [Note: She interrupts him. ] not able to hold out till his ending, interrupting three or four times, tells him, he need not trouble himself nor her, to change her faith, in which she was settled during her life, the ancient Catholick Roman Profession, In defence whereof she had been alwayes, and yet would be ready to sacrifice her blood. The Earls said, Madam, we will pray with your Grace, that you may be enligh[...]ned with the true knowledge of Jesus Christ, and dye therein. The Queen thanked them, but refused to pray together, unless in her own devotions. Then they required the Dean to pray, [Note: He prayed for her. ] who effectually in a long Prayer, desired God to open her understanding by Faith and Repentance, to turn from her vain affection of Papistry, and to dye in the true Protestant faith. All which time, [Note: Her demeanor in Prayers. ] the Queen sate on her stool, with a Latine prayer-Book in her hand, a Crucifix and Beads, not regarding what he said; Her servants also did the like. But then the Queen, with all her people, with a loud voice, and in tears, prayed in Latin. And after that, her self concluded with an English prayer, for the Church afflicted, for her Son, and for the Queen, and professed to be saved by the blood of Christ. Upon this, kissing her Crucifix (said she) will I shed my blood. She earnestly prayed, That God would avert his judgements from the sins of this Kingdom, and to afford the people grace of Repentance. And prayed for forgiveness of her Enemies, who so long had sought her destruction, to convert them into the truth, and desired all Saints to pray for them and her. Kissing her Crucifix, crossed her self, and besought Our Saviour who spread his Arms for all, to receive her now unto his mercy, Amen. The Executioners kneeled to her, [Note: Executioners and servants disrobe her. ] and begged forgiveness, which she granted very unfeignedly, as she said, heartily willing to receive this cup, the end of all her miseries. Her women began to disrobe her; one of the Executioners took from her Neck the Agnus Dei tyed behind, which the Queen laid hold on, gave it to her woman, and told him, he should have money. But suffered them, with her women, to take off her chain and apparel in some hast and gladness, alwayes smiling; and putting off her strait sleeves with her own hands, denied the fellow, who rudely offered at it. [page 125] With more than smiling scorn, told them all, never such Grooms; disrobed a Queen, nor never did she undress before such company. And now in her Petticote and Kirtle, [Note: Her servants sorrowful. ] prepared for death, her women skreeking, cryed out with exceeding sorrow, crossed themselves, and prayed in Latin. The Queen crossed and kissed them, desired their prayers without mourning, and crossed her men servants, who stood without the Rail, weeping and crying out. One of her women with a Corpus Christi-cloth wrapped corner-wayes, kissed it, put it over the Queens face, pinning it fast upon the Call of her Head. Then she kneeled down upon her Cushion, [Note: She kneels at the Block. ] resolutedly undaunted, spake aloud in Latin the whole Psalm, In te domine confido, ne confunder in aeternum. And groping for the Block, laid down her head, put her chin over the block with both her hands, and held them there, which might have been cut off with her head, had they not been espied. But being advised, she quietly ordered her self again, and stretching forth her Arms and leggs, [Note: And is executed. ] cryed out, In Manus tuas domine, &tc. three or four times, when one of the Executioners gently held her down, and the other gave two strokes with the Axe, before her head was off, leaving a little gris[...]e uncut, without the least stir or remove of the body. He lifted up her head, and said, God save our Queen. Her dressing fallen off, her hair appeared so grey as at seventy yeers, [Note: 46. yeers old 18. yeers prisoner. ] very short: Her lips stirred a quarter of an hour after. Then said the Dean, So perish the enemies of our Queen. So said the Earl of Kent. Very remarkable was there, [Note: Observable, her Dogs d[...]meaner. ] one accident; The Queen had a little Shag-dog, that alwayes followed her Person, even to her foot-steps, who (unespied) crept under her Garments, and would not remove but by force, snarling and biting; nor would afterwards depart, but laid down between her head and shoulders, most notoriously noted by all. The Commissioners gave way to the humor of the Dog, who imbrued himself in her blood, snarling and casting up his eyes as if to quarrel with them all, and bite at them who washed him, as they did all things else that were bloody. The Executioners had mony, but no part of her Garments. The Corps was carried up into the great Chamber, [Note: Her Corps buried in the Cathedral of Peterborough. Magnificently removed by K. James to Westminster, 1612. ] and there imbalmed, and afterward buried in the Cathedral of Peterborough: and her funerals were kept more Magnificently by the Guises at Paris; and yet more illustrious twenty six yeers after by her son, the King, in the remove of her Corps from thence to Westminster, where she lies intombed amongst the Glories of her Royal Ancestors. And thus she died, Mary Queen of Scotland, great grand-daughter [page 126] to Henry the Seventh of England, by the eldest Daughter Margaret, six and fourty years of age, and in the eighteenth year of her Captivity, Anno 1586. Let us give her to the World in this brevity. She was designed by Henry the Eighth to his Son Edward the Sixth, [Note: Her Epitaphs. ] and by Henry the Second, King of France, for Francis the Dolphin; at five years of age she was conveyed in to France, at fifteen married to the Dolphin, who was after King of France. She was sole Sovereign Queen of France one year and four moneths. Her Husband being dead, she returned into Scotland, and married the Lord Darly by whom she had King Iames. Near to her Tomb in Peterborough Church was this Epitaph fixed in Latine, but soon pulled down. Maria Scotorum, &tc. Thus Englished: Mary Queen of Scots, a Kings Daughter, the French Kings Widow, near Kinswoman to the Queen of England, and next Heir to the Crown, adorned with royal virtues and a kingly minde; often, but in vain, demanding the Privilege of a Prince; by barbarous and tyrannical Cruelties, the Ornament of our Age, and a right Princely Light is extinguished; and by one and the same infamous Iudgment both Mary Queen of Scots, (to a natural Death) and all surviving Kings, (being made common persons) are doomed to a Civil Death; a strange and uncouth Grave, wherein the Living are shut up with the Dead. Cum sacris enim divae Mariae cineribus, omnium Regum, atque Principum violatam atque prostratam Majestatem hic jacere scito; &t quia tacitum regale satis superque Reges sui Officii monet, plura non addo, Viator.
Indeed so much was said and censured, that the Queen and State began to double; she in a monstrous sadness and tears, denying Address of the Counsellours; and her self excuseth her Death to the King of Scots by Sir Robert Cary.
MY dear Brother,
I would to God you knew, though not to feel, how my minde with imcomparable grief is disquiet, in regard of this lamentable Event, against my meaning and intent, [Note: Q. Elizabeths Letter to the K. of Scots. ] which because my Pen trembles to utter, by this my Cosin, you shall understand it. I am not so poor of spirit, to be afraid to do what is just, or to deny it, I intreat you, that God above and many on earth may be witnesses of my innocency therein; and that you would credit, had I commanded, I would also now not deny it. being done; nor appertaineth it to a Prince, to shadow the meaning with ambiguous words, nor will I dissemble my Actions, out of their own colour. Perswade your self to the truth. As I know this is deservedly come to pass, so if I had meant it, I would never have laid blame on others; nor will I impute to my self what I never dreamed. The rest he shall impart, by whom you receive these; as for [page 127] me, I would have you credit, that there is none more truly affected towards you, or more studious for you and your affairs; if any shall otherwise suggest, believe them not. God keep you long in safety and prosperity.
And Cary on his Journey, poor Davison her Secretary (to make good the Errand) is called to trial in the Star-chamber, [Note: Davison sentenced in Star-chamber. ] before Delegates assigned; a man of singular modesty and mildness, answered much for his innocency, as being unwilling to contest with the Queen, yet could he not endure his modesty should wrong the Truth and his own Integrity, and so suffered himself to be be guilty and censured a thousand pounds Fine and Imprisonment, which he endured a long time, and never could procure the Queens favour, though he was relieved by her charity in his great necessity, which after followed. The Qu. (saith he) upon the Departure of the French and Scotish Ambassadours from Her, [Note: His apology unto Walsing. ] of her own accord commanded me to prepare the Commission, for executing the Sentence against the Queen of Scots, and when it was exhibited, she willingly signed it with her own Hand; and after, gave order for it to be made ready under the Great Seal of England; and merrily said, Signifie thus much to Walsingham, who is sick, though I fear greatly it will make him die with grief. She added also Reasons, why she had deferred it so long, to wit, That she might not seem to be drawn unto it forcibly or maliciously; though she were not ignorant all the while how necessary it was. She blamed Paulet and Drury, that they had not freed Her from that care, and wished that Walsingham would try them therein. The next Day the Great Seal was to it, she sent Injunction by Killegrew, that it should not be done. And when I shewed to Her, that it was done, she reproved my haste, intimating, that some other couse by some wise Persons might be taken. I made Answer, That that was always the best way, which was the justest. But fearing that she might lay the fault on me, (as she had done the Duke of Norfolks punishment on the Lord Burghley) I imparted the whole matter to Hatton; protesting not to engage any further in so great an Affair. He strait way did communicate to Burghley, and he to the rest of the Counsellours, who all consented to have it hastened: and severally vowed, that they would bear the blame; and they sent down Beal with the Commission and Letters. Three Days after, perceiving her minde doubtfull, by reason of a Dream which she told, of the Queen of Scots Death; I asked, if her minde were altered? No, (said she) but some other course [page 128] might have been thought upon. And with all demanded, if Paulet had returned any Answer? Whose Letters when I shewed to her, wherein he plainly refused to undertake it, as being neither honorable nor just; She in anger accused him and others, which had tied themselves in Association of Perjury, and their Vow violated, who had promised great matters for their Princes safety, but would perform nothing: yet there were amongst them (she said) that would do as much in their own cause. But I shewed, how infamous and unjust a thing that were, and withall into what Dangers she should cast Paulet and Drury; for if she allowed the Fact, she must draw upon her self Danger and Disgrace, besides a note of Injustice, but if she disallowed it, she must ruine well-deserving men and their posterity. Afterward, the same Day, that she was put to Death, she gave me a Check, that the Sentence was not all this while put in execution, as thinking it not done. Hereby appears foul play intended, [Note: Foul play on all hands. ] by another (no doubt) wicked way, which Paulet and Drury boggled at to perform: and yet we see, what daubing there was on all sides, to cast the blame and after-shame on any, to keep the stain and blot from the eminent Actors.
And the cunning of Walsingham, who having the greatest hand in the contrivance towards her Death, craftily got out of the way at the Deed doing; and therefore Davison appeals to him, telling the truth in his politick absence of a counterfeit cold. And Walsingham is put upon it, [Note: Walsinghams Letter to pacifie the K. ] to work his wits how to pacifie King Iames, with a tedious Letter to the Lord Thirlstan, who had the chiefest interest in the Scotish affairs of State; propounding to him, important Reasons, to keep the King from enmity with England; which though very effectual, might meet with the like resolution in Him, to forbear violence, and to take up a more calm consideration. But though the Letter be long, we may not hinder it the worlds approbation.
BEing absent from Court when the late Execution of the Queen your Sovereigns Mother happened, [Note: Walsinghams Letter to the L. Thirlstan. ] I did forthwith upon my Return impart to Master Dowglas some things, concerning the course was conceived here, by your said Sovereigns best Friends, fit to be holden in this remediless Accident; for continuance of Peace and Amity between the two Crowns, as the best for both Nations.
The rather, for that by advertisement out of Scotland, I understand [page 129] that the Queens Death is like to breed a strange Alienation of his Majesties minde towards this Realm, tending (as is reported) wholly to violence and revenge of that, which hath been done so necessarily by the whole Body of the same; whereof, as for my own part I should be sorry, so it is generally hoped, that his Majesty being of that singular judgment himself, by the good help and advice of such as you are in credit and authority about him, men of wisdom and experience, whom he will hear, this mischief, will (notwithstanding) be carefully and prudently prevented; considering how every way all things being rightly weighed, this course will be found prejudicial, as well to your Sovereigns Estate, as to his Reputation, if he resolve to persist therein.
For first, the Enterprise will undoubtedly be condemned, in the sight of all such as shall not be transported with some particular passion; for that they shall see, that he takes Arms for revenge of an Action (besides the necessity wherein it is grounded) full of so honourable and just Proceedings, as, however the effect was contrary to their liking, the manner thereof, by the late Queens great Favourers, could not but be approved and allowed. And as on the one side, the King your Sovereign oppugning the course of Justice; of so unlawfull, unjust and desperate a Quarrel, cannot be expected any other thing than an unhappy and miserable issue: so, we being assured, that in the defence of Justice, the assistance of God his mighty Arm will not fail us, whose Judgment this was, need not to fear what ever man shall attempt to the contrary, against this Realm.
But not to stand upon the justness of the Quarrels, which every man perhaps will not so much regard; It would be considered, what means your Sovereign shall have to go through with such Enterprise, if he take it in hand. For, the Forces of his own Realm, being so far inferiour to these in England, no man is so simple, but seeth it were no way safe for his Majesty, trusting onely thereto, to make Head against the power of this Land, neither is it thought, that any man will be found so unadvised, as to wish him so to do.
But, as it may be, that a great Number (for lack of understanding) are carried away with such Discourses, (as some without solid ground imagine) of that might be done in this case by a King of Scotland, backed and assisted (as they conceive in the air) with the French and Spanish aid; so it is likely enough, there shall not want those, that either in satisfaction of their private passions, or supply of their necessities, or better affectionating of some other their private design, would be content to serve themselves of this present publick occasion and oportunity, who will propound and promise more to his Majesty, of such forein [page 130] assistance, than they know in their consciences, can be performed, if he would declare himself Enemy to this Realm; which that he should, (though to his own ruine) the Enemies of both Nations, will do what they can to procure.
But men of wisdom and understanding, laying before their eys, as well the accustomed delays, and after long [...]ollicitation and pursute, the simple supplies and support, commonly found at these forein Potentates hands; as also, how doubfull and uncertain the success of War may appear; England (God be thanked) being so prepared, and in case to defend it self, both otherwi[...]e, and also by the conjunction of Holland and Zealands Forces by Sea; in respect whereof, this Realm need not fear, what all the Potentates of Europe being bended against us, can do, to afford the same; Due consideration (I say) being taken hereof, you will easily judg and finde, how vain it were, for your Sovereign, upon so uncertain hopes, to embarque himself and Estate in an unnecessary War: but much more, if you shall consider, what a sequel and train of Dangers, this War draweth therewith, the consequence whereof reacheth to whatsoever your Sovereign possesseth, or hopeth for in this life. For, escaping to be slain in the field, if he should happen to be taken Prisoner, or be constrained to retire himself out of the Realm, (things that have often fallen out in experience) and then, having incensed this whole Realm against him, he should be disabled from any Right in the Succession of this Crown, (as authority is given to do it by the same Statute, whereby they proceeded against his Mother) for attempting the Invasion of this Land, what extremity should he be reduced unto?
And truly it could not otherwise be, the antient enmity between the two Nations now forgotten, being (by drawing bloud one of another again) likely to be in such sort revived, that it would be impossible to make them to receive a Prince of that Nation, and especially Him, who had (upon so unjust ground) been the Author of so unhappy a Breach.
Besides that, the greatest part of the Nobility, by whose judgment the late Queen was condemned, and the rest of the principal Gentlemen of the Realm, who confirmed the same in Parliament, should have just cause to adventure any thing, even to the marching over their bellies, rather than to yield to his Government, who carrying such a vindictive minde, they might doubt, would not day call their Lives and Honours in question.
And as for the remedy and relief which he might attend (standing on those terms) of forein Princes, there are many Examples of former Ages, and within fresh memory; as the King of Navar's Grandfather by the Mothers side, and Christian King of Denmark, both being allied to Francis the First, and [page 131] Charls the Fifth, two of the mightiest Potentates that reigned of long time: and that this present Don Antonio, may su[...]fice for Examples, to teach all Princes, (if they can avoid it) to beware how they fall into that state, whereby they shall be enforced to seek their own by other Potentates means; Princes, not being so ready in these days, to embrace other mens Quarrels, but where they are extraordinarily interessed in their own fortunes.
Wherefore I doubt not, but it will be seen by men of judgment, (not transported with passion, or led away with private respects) that it should be every way, the onely best course for your Sovereign, by a good and kinde usage of Her Majesty, and by shewing that Princely moderation, as well in this grievous Accident of his Mothers death, as his whole proceeding with this Realm (which his Highness excellent Education seems to promise) to seek to win the hearty good wills of this Nation; as the chief and principal assurance he can in any sort obtain.
For, to trust and depend either upon the French King, or the K. of Spain, as if by their assistance, he might attain to the present possession of this Crown, they being indeed the only two Potentates, whom he must have recourse unto, if he reject the amity of England; whosoever shall so counsel your Sovereign, (as things now stand) shall in the judgment of men of the best understanding, be blamed either of fidelity or want of wisdom, drawing his Majesty unto so untoward and desperate a course.
For, it is no way safe for any Prince to repose his trust and strength upon their favour and assistance, to whose desires and designs his greatness may yield any impeachment or hindrance; so it were clearly against common reason, to expect other support and assistance from them, than might stand with their own commodities and pretensions, in respect whereof, neither of the two foresaid Kings can simply and roundly joyn with his Sovereign to his good.
First, his Religion being odious to them both, and likely to prove most prejudicial to the Catholick Cause, he growing so great, as he should be made by the union of the two Crowns; the consideration whereof, caused his Mothers affairs to stick a long time, and made now in the end, to leave him quite out of the reckoning, ordaining the King of Spain her Heir, if her Son became not Catholick.
Next, it is meerly repugnant to the policy of France, were it but in respect of the ancient claim which England maketh to that Crown, to suffer the uniting of this Island under one Prince.
They have been content in former times, when England had footing in France, to serve themselves of your Nation, therewith to annoy this Realm, by the means of diverting or dividing the Forces thereof; and so perhaps the Politicks of France can be [page 132] content to wish at this day, by your Sovereigns Quarrel, or any such like, to be eased of the burthen and miseries of the present War, wherewith they are plagued, by transporting the same into this Island. But as this Realm hath good means to prevent the mi[...]chief, if it were intended; so were your Sovereign to look, when all were done, but to be made an Instrument, as his Predecessors have been, of the effusion of much Scotish bloud, for French Quarrels, and the desolation of that Realm.
And as things stand presently in France, it is not to be thought that you shall finde the King ready to hearken unto any Enterprise of this Land; He being most desirous to live in peace, both with his Neighbours abroad, and with his Subjects at home; but that he hath been forced full sore against his will, by the practice of them of the House of Guise, to countenance with his authority the Civil War raised in that Realm; which maketh him (what ever shew he hath to shadow out the contrary) to hate them in his heart.
Neither would it be held sound counsel, to be given him, by any that depends upon his fortune, to further the advancement of a King of Scots so nearly allied to that Family, which he hath discovered, and greatly feareth to level at his own Crown, with any intention to depose him, which by the greatness of a King of Scots, they should be so much the sooner and better able to effect.
The King of Spain's assistance, being now in War with this Realm, were more likely to be obtained, but far more dangerous to be used, in respect of his most insatiable ambition, deep practices, and power, accompanied in this case with a colour of Right, wherein how far he would seek to prevail, any opportunity or advantage being offered, it may be justly doubted, by the experience that sundry States have had, which upon slender grounds of Title, have been extorted and wrung from the true Inheritors, and annexed to his own Kingdom, as Navar, Portugal, and all that he possesseth in Italy, hath been.
It is believed, that the King of Spain, considering his years, and unsettled Estate every way, would willingly incline to peace, if it were offered, with reasonable conditions, and not over readily at this present, imbarque himself in any new Enterprise.
But, otherwise it is well known, as he had fancied to Himself the Empire of all this part of Europe, so he had an eye to this Realm ever since he was King, in Right of his Wife. The Conquest was intended under colour of Religion, as it was discovered by some that were of his Privy Council at that time; his pretension to be Heir of the House of Lancaster, and (since the late Queen of Scots Death) the first Catholick Prince of the Bloud [page 133] Royal of England, as also the Donation of this Crown, made to him by the Queen of Scots in her Letters, with a promise to confirm it by Testament; (things blazed abroad by the Spanish Ambassadour at Paris) ought to breed jealousies and suspitions in your Sovereigns head, and give him true cause to think, how he should be used at such an Assistants hand. Auxiliary Forces have ever been reputed dangerous, if they either in number or policy were superior to them that called them in. The Assistance therefore of Spain and France being of this nature, as your Sovereign hath need of neither, so he shall do well to forbear them both, and so shall it be well for his ease.
It may be, some will pretend by change of his Religion, your Sovereign shall better his condition, in regard of these forein Princes; besides, a great party within this Realm, that thereby shall be drawn wholly to depend upon his fortune; but the poor distressed estate of Don Antonio, being a Catholick Prince, spoiled by a Catholick, and receiving so little succour at Catholick Princes hands, shall be a sufficient bar to all that can be said in that behalf.
As for the Catholick party in England, in his Mothers life, it was never so united, as they drew all in one line, much less will they be brought suddenly to rely upon him, if he should alter his Religion, (as God defend) which would be his utter discredit and overthrow, both with the one and the other party; neither having cause to repose confidence in him; the Protestants, because he had renounced the Religion, wherein he was with great care brought up.
The Papists, because they could not be assured in short space, that he was truly turned to their faith; yea, all men should have reason to forsake him, who had thus dissembled and forsaken his God.
And whereas it was given out, that divers do insinuate into your Sovereign, that his Honor and Reputation is so deeply interessed herein, as it must necessarily turn to his perpetual ignominy and reproach, if he give not some notable testimomy to the world, of the affection and dutifull love he bare to his Mother; your King being of that singular judgment, that he is thought to have, cannot be ignorant, how far true honour ought to possess a Christian Prince, that is, not whither Passion or fury useth to carry men, but whither Reason or Wisdom have laid the bounds, that is, within the compass of Possibility, Decency and Iustice.
If the late Queen had been innocent, Revenge had been necessary, just and honourable; but being culpable, contrary, (in all reasonable mens judgments) he hath sufficiently discharged the duty of a Son, in mediating for his Mother, so long as she was alive, [page 134] and so far as he was able to prevail; they which require more at his Highness hands, may be presumed, not to regard what beseemeth his Place and Dignity, but to seek the satisfaction of their own particular passions and desires.
And whoever perswadeth his Majesty, that the mediation used by him for his Mother, contrary to the humble pursute of the whole Parliament, hath already given that offence to the Nobility and People of this Land, as it behoveth him of force to have recourse to forein supports, doth greatly abuse both his Highness and this Realm; for as they were not ignorant, what Nature might and ought to move his Majesty unto, so long as there were any hope of her life; so, they do not doubt, but that reason will induce him to leave sorrowing, and thinking of her, in due time.
Thus have I troubled you with a long Discourse, whereunto the desire I have of the continuance of amity between the two Crowns, hath carried me unawares further than I purposed; all which, I refer to your consideration, not doubting that you will afford most readily and willingly all good offices that shall lie in your power, to the end that a happy conclusion may ensue hereof, which shall tend to the common good of the whole Island. And so I commit you to God.
From the Court at Greenwich, Martii 4. 1686.
Your Lordships assured Friend, FR: WALSINGHAM.
Here was good Counsel for the King, [Note: The King[...] deportment upon his Mothers death. ] but for the present, in great discontent he calls home his Ambassadors out of England; the States of Scotland urge him to a revenge, to seek aid of forein Princes, and a Navy from the King of Denmark, whose daughter then was in treaty of Marriage with him. The Catholicks suggested, rather to joyn with the Pope, Spain, and France, and to desert the Puritans; who (they said) would murther him, as his Mother. Some willed him to be Neuter, to take time to bethink, and by that means, whilst his distempered condition gave excuse for his Acting, he might piece himself to that party, where he should be sure of best support. Alwaies, he resolved to keep peace with England, and constancy to his Protestant Religion. And thus, [Note: Whom Queen Elizabeth caressed. ] whilst his wisdom beyond his age (twenty two yeers) sate still, the Queen feared the more; not knowing, what Counsel might provoke him to her prejudice, and so stayed some time, till the length thereof might mitigate her sorrow, being [page 135] indeed to big to be cured, [Note: Anno 1587. ] till it should lye down, and rest with its own weight and weariness. Therefore knowing how mightily the French wrought in their mine to provoke both Nations to publike defiance, she maturely sends several Messengers, and afterwards the Lord Hunsdon her Ambassador, with studied arguments, to take off his adhering to foreign friendships, and the danger thereby to both Kingdoms, where his interest in succession was most of all concerned, being his just right, to which his Mothers sufferings could be no prejudice. But the next yeer, Philip King of Spain, sends to the Duke of Parma his Governor in the Low Countries, [Note: Designs upon the King to revenge. ] in his Name, to promise to King Iames mony and Amunition, sufficient, to attempt revenge for his mothers death. Parma sends over to Scotland Robert Bruce, a Scot by birth, and noble family, with money to quicken his purpose. The Pope, also, Pius Quintus, dispatches thither his Bishop of Dublin, to promise to the King the Infanta of Spain in marriage, if he would turn Romane Catholike; but faithfull, Metallan the Chancellor, frustrates those hopes, and returns him home with a flea in his ear. But ere he departs, he designs on William Creyton a Scot also, and sometime Rector of the College, [Note: Designs in Scotlaand. ] of Iesuits in Leyden, to stay behind; and this man treats with Bruce to murther Metallan. Bruce refuses that Assassination; and then he is urged to hire with Parmas mony, some needy noble man there, at a banquet, to poyson the King his invited guest, and was denyed in that also. Then he quarels with him to part with fifteen hundred Crowns, to distribute them to three other Lords to effect it, but being refused in all these, he stayes the time to work out other mischiefs hereafter; and Parma dying, he accuseth Bruce of Treason (for not willing to be a Traytor) and for which he indures long imprisonment ere he got liberty. The Earl of Angus (to make him quiet) was sent the Kings Lieutenant on the Borders [Note: Earl A[...]gus dies bewitcht. ] this was done to rid hm out of the way of disordering the Court, where he was ever factious, and to his own liking also, for he was contented with the condition of those people, with whom he spent much of his former time of treachery and trouble; But his disease, there, increasing, he dies. He was of a swart complexion, [Note: His Character. ] tall and slender, well proportioned and strait; of a weak and tender constitution. His death was ascribed to witchcraft (frequent profession with them) by one Barbery Nepair in Edenburgh, wi[...]e to Dowglass of Castogle, who was condemned, but execution deferred, she being with child, and for the present reprieved, and after neglected, and so saved from the Gallows. Annia Simson also a famous Witch confessed, That a picture of wax was brought unto her, having the letters A. D. [page 136] written on it (which she was told, signified Archiball Davidson) and which she execrated after her form; but it seems it proved Archiball Dowglass (or Davidson) for his father was named David. He dyed the nineth Earl, and the last of his race. If it were not natural to the Scots to be contrivers of mischief in their own Bowels, [Note: Civil broyl[...] in Scotland to kill the Lord Thirslton by Gray, ] yet now it was not policy for England to let them need their helping hands therein; and therefore new troubles are stirred up in the Scots Court. The Master of Gray conspiring with the Lord Maxwell to kill the Lord Thirlston, Sir Iames Hume and Robert Dowglas reveale it to Sir William Stewart (who was returned to Court) and assure him, that Thirlston, Gray, Blantine and himself brought in the Lords at Sterlin, and put his brother Captain Iames Stewart from Court, which now he repented, and would this way assist him to revenge. Stewart not confident in the man, [Note: accused, ] discovers all to the King and Thirlston complains to the Councel, which Gray denies, and Sir William justifies, and more, accuses him of abuse in his late Ambassie into England, and treacherously consenting to the death of the Kings Mother. But these accusations referring to truth and a leasurely Tryal, they were both committed. Which came again to examination and further accusation of Gray, [Note: of Treason also. ] for letters to the French King and Duke of Guise; not to assist Scotland in revenge of Queen Maries death, unless the King would tollerate Catholiks, which Gray could not deny, but begged mercy, ingenuously confessing that he finding Queen Elizabeths resolution, advised to put her to death, rather in private, than in forms of Justice; and acknowledged those words mortui non mordent, to be his, and so meant, and not as they were detorted. And so craving the Kings gracious favour, [Note: He was banished. ] was condemned and banished; A rule of the Kings clemency, never to ruine, whom he had affected. The King now twenty one yeers compleat (and more) calls a Parliament in Iuly at Edenburgh, [Note: A Parliament, the King reconciles the Lords. ] and for preparation, summons the Noblemens whom he reconciled from all controversie, and feasts them all at Court: And being the better whittled, they went hand in hand by couples to the Market-cross. A rare sight to the people if it would last. He hoped to do as much with the Churchmen, [Note: And endeavours to do so by [...]he Kirkmen, who refuse mediation. ] Ministers and Prelates: But soft, they are not in charity with the King himself, for the committing of their brethren Gibson and Cooper, which was an offence to the Godly, and for the admitting Montgomery (by the Kings desire) who was excommunicate. It must not be but by sparing some of his punishments, in case the King release Cooper; so nothing done for either. And being now up in spiritual Arms, they petition the Parliament, That the Prelates [page 137] might be removed from sitting among the Estates, as having no authority from the Church, no function nor charge at all. But the Abbot of Kinlass made answer, That the Ministers had disorderly shut them out of their Churches, and now would turn them out of their places in Parliament. And indeed do what the King could to the contrary, there passed an Act for annexing the Temporality of Benefices to the Crown, upon pretext of bettring the patrimony, and to leav the honor of Estate without Taxe on the people, but to the utter decay of the spiritual; Priors and Abotts being turned temporal Lords, which the King afterwards finding inconvenient, advises his son in his Basilicon Doron to anull, That vile and pernicious Act, as he calls it. The Borderers were up, [Note: Borderers in [...]wd. ] taking advantage of any quarrel, now make incursions upon England with fire and sword, beginning the revenge for their Queen Mother, as they termed it. Hereupon Hunsdon Governor of Barwick gets audience of the King (all others before being refused) urging the most of Walsinghams reasons before mentioned, [Note: Hunsdon Ambassador to Scotla[...] ] as a hazard to his succession, to raise war with England, and satisfies the King with a Declaration of the Judges, and the sentence of Davison in Star-Chamber, as if all had been done without Queen Elizabeths knowledge, and so the Borderers were commanded to be qniet. An Ambassadour Patrick Vaus of Barnborough from Denmark, [Note: Ambassadours about the mariage with Denmark. ] accompanied Peter Yong the Kings Almoner, who had been sent to Treat of the Marriage in May last, return now in August with the conclusion; and that in the spring, a Nobleman should be directed to accomplish the Ceremony in Denmark and bring home the Bride. But the death of King Frederick her father in Aprill, delayed the business for certain moneths after. To end this yeer, [Note: Jesuit[...] arrive in Scotland. ] comes over divers Jesuits and Priests, to deal with the Catholicke Lords in Scotland, to assist the next yeers invasion of England, in hope to find friendship if they should be forced on their Coast, and outwardly made it their business of revenge, for his Mothers death, promising to conquer the Crown for his sake, that was sure, otherwise to wear it; but the King hastely returns them home again, and proclaims against them, and their Abetters. And the Church-men taking fire, [Note: Kirk-men insolent. ] though all fear was quenched, they Assemble Lords and Laicks, and in a confused multitude beset the Kings resolutions, to do of himself, what they so earnestly desired. And therefore in great choler sends them word, That they meant to boast him with their power, and force the execution of their demands, and admitting some of the number, they confer with the Kings Councel, and so a good course was concluded against the Catholicks, and the Ministers bidden to depart. [page 138] Nay, [Note: Anno 1588. ] now they are up, allay them who can, for ere they disband, the grievances of the Church must be rectified. Iames Gibson heretofore censured for his misdemeanour against the King, and had liberty upon promise of his Recantation and Submission in the Pulpit; [Note: and in mutiny for Gibson. ] but the man had a new Light, and told the People, that out of infirmity he had confessed a Fault, but his conscience now was otherwise revealed; that his actions heretofore were innocent. The Chancellour hath the opinion of the Assembly, [Note: Gibsons ab[...]se of the King. ] whether To call the King Persecutor of the Church, and threaten him to be the last of his Race, were well done? and this to the People out of the Pulpit? Much ado in dispute, to finde error in so godly a man; the major Votes made it offensive; and in the afternoon he was to appear for defining the Censure; but in the mean time Gibson gets away, and was excused, being in fear of the King, so great an Adversary; and this endured a long debate, in behalf of him, ere the Kings Advocates could plead a distinction, between his Majesty and their Ministery; and all that could be gotten for the King was, the man to be suspended, during the pleasure of the Assembly, which lasted but the next meeting in August, where Gibson gives his Reasons of not appearing before, for fear that the affairs of the Church might be hindered by disturbance, [Note: He flies into England to the Schismaticks. ] if his person had then suffered in presence of the People. Upon this deep Declaration, without asking leave of the King, he is purged of his contumacy, which so incensed the King, who taking upon him to be some-body, the Fellow was forced to fly to the factious Brethren in England, who were labouring to bring in the holy Discipline into that Church also. For the infection of Schisms had spread abroad in England greater Injuries and more impudent Contempts than had been known before, [Note: Puritans of England. ] upon the Temporal and Ecclesiastical Magistrates, [Note: Martin, f. 780. ] by the Puritans (as one calls them) of those days; and Queen Elizabeth, Semper eadem, not enduring Innovation, as impugning directly or obliquely the Royal Prerogative. The Zealots for the Geneve Discipline, railing at the English Hierarchy with scurrilous non-sense Libells, by names of Martin-Mar-Prelate, The Demonstration of Discipline, sought mischief upon the Bishops; the chief Authours were Penry, Udal, Ministers; Iob Throgmorton, Knightley and Wigstone, Laicks; their Favourites drawn in, to defend their Railings, and were soundly fined in Star-chamber; yet they privately held conventicles, and had their Synods, Classes and Presbyteries; for this cause Thomas Cartwright (the Father of the Disciplinarians) Snape, King, Proudlow and Pain, were questioned, whom certain conspired to rescue; and so great was the petulancy of these Patriarchs and [page 139] their Disciples, as would require a particular Volume to unfold. See Hist. Q. Eliz. by Martin, fol. 782.